Where to use “BY” and “WITH”
Both prepositions tell how the work is done.
But there is a difference
“By” comes before (ing form)
They improved their fluency BY speaking
You can cook a delicious cake, BY adding butter
“By” comes before a noun which is used mainly for communication or transportation
He went to Singapore by plane/by car/by bus/by subway
I got your details by fax /by phone
Read: Where to use “In” and “On”
“WITH” is used when body parts or “TOOLS” are mentioned.
I opened the bottle WITH an opener
He opened the door WITH his hands
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Where to use “OFF” and “OF”
To show what something contains
- A cup of tea
- A plate of roasted chicken
- A glass of milk
- A jar or tea leaves
- A bouquet of flowers
- A bottle of milk power
To show a point of reckoning
- North of the wall
- West of Jakarta
- South of Durban
- East of Tokyo
To show possession
- The hand of God
- A branch of tree
- A part of me
- A tributary of river
- People of India
To state what something is made of
- A splinter of wood
- A heart of gold
The word off is the opposite of the word on. For example:
- Switch it on. Switch it off.
- Wipe that paint off the wall.
- Clean the floor of the littered milk
(In this example, the prepositional phrase is off the wall. The word off is a preposition.)
(Here, off is a particle.)
- Get off the table.
- She lived off the land.
- She is going off you.
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