Where to use the preposition IN and ON?
- We use “In” for time in terms of months, years, decades or centuries.For example,
- In January,
In the last decade
In 18th century
I left college in May
Saddam was born in August
I will fly to Indonesia in AprilIN is also used with seasons:-
He likes skiing in summers.
The bird is sitting in a tree
They enjoy playing cricket in monsoons.
He always take a vacation in winters .
IN is also used with countries
- He lives in Malaysia.
The company is located in Morocco.
She went to school in Afghanistan.
IN is also used with countries with city or town names:
- He has a house in Algeria.
I was born in India.
He works in Pakistan.
IN is also used with times of the day –
- They wake up early in the morning.
He goes to office in the afternoon.
Akbar sometimes plays softball in the evening.
In is also used to indicate:
1. That someone or something belongs to or is included as part of something
• She used to play in a cricket team before, but not now
2. During a period of time, a season, etc.
• It happened in the 2018
3. At the end of (a period of time)
• I’ll be there in an hour or so, if possible .
4. How people or things are arranged
• They stood in a circle for two hours, which is indeed commendable
When to Use the Preposition “On”
Use “on” with specific days of the week or year:
- Let’s meet on Sunday.
What are you planning to do on Anniversary Day?
He is going to take part in the match on March 5th.
Read : Where to use “By” and “With”
“On” is also used to indicate:
The part or object by which someone or something is supported
• How long can you stand on one foot all by yourself, without taking the help of anyone?
2. That something is attached to something
• He hung the painting on the wall easily all by himself.
3. Where someone or something is hit or touched
• I bumped my head on a low branch and I seriously bruised my forehead
4. The surface or part where something is seen or located
• There are marks on the wall and they look so ugly, in the freshly painted wall
5. The bird is sitting on the branch
Where to use “BY” and “WITH”
Both prepositions tell how the work is done.
But there is a difference
“By” comes before (ing form)
They improved their fluency BY speaking
You can cook a delicious cake, BY adding butter
“By” comes before a noun which is used mainly for communication or transportation
He went to Singapore by plane/by car/by bus/by subway
I got your details by fax /by phone
“WITH” is used when body parts or “TOOLS” are mentioned.
I opened the bottle WITH an opener
He opened the door WITH his hands
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Where to use “OFF” and “OF”
To show what something contains
- A cup of tea
- A plate of roasted chicken
- A glass of milk
- A jar or tea leaves
- A bouquet of flowers
- A bottle of milk power
To show a point of reckoning
- North of the wall
- West of Jakarta
- South of Durban
- East of Tokyo
To show possession
- The hand of God
- A branch of tree
- A part of me
- A tributary of river
- People of India
To state what something is made of
- A splinter of wood
- A heart of gold
The word off is the opposite of the word on. For example:
- Switch it on. Switch it off.
- Wipe that paint off the wall.
- Clean the floor of the littered milk
(In this example, the prepositional phrase is off the wall. The word off is a preposition.)
- Stop showing off.
(Here, off is a particle.)
- Get off the table.
- She lived off the land.
- She is going off you.
Where to use OVER and ABOVE
Although both the terms “Above” and “Over” means at a higher place, yet I am telling you a very specific difference.
“ABOVE” is used in those places which is physically higher
The plane is ___a city
It clearly means, that the plane in its physically form is there above
If you want to use “Over”, then the sentence will change.
Now, I am writing in the following manner:-
The plane flew over the city
It means, that the place few from one part of the city to another
However, in the following sentences, both can be used.
Also Read : Where to use “During and “While” in a sentence
Let’s check the nature of such sentences:-
- The movie is watchable for children over/above 13 years
- The temperature in summers touch above/over 50 degree
- Everyone these days value time above/over money
Where to use Below & Under
Below is preferred when one thing is not directly under another- All the common uses of below are related to the idea of “lower or less than,” as in these examples:
The sun disappeared below the horizon. (NOT The sun disappeared under the horizon.)
The climbers stopped several hundred meters below the top of the mountain.
While measuring temperature and height we use below.
• It is 5 degrees below zero (less than)
• This place is below above sea level
Under is preferred when something is covered by what is over it.
My slippers are lying under the bed (no touching, no movement)
The shoe polish is lying under the table (no touching, no movement)
The boat passes under the bridge (movement)
“Under” can also be used in the following cases where there is some sort of control , like in the following cases:-
The school is under new management
The force captured three men , under the command of seniors
To mean ‘less than’ or ‘younger than’ we use under.
There were under 30 students in the auditorium today
You can say “There were below 30 students in the auditorium today
No one is allowed to drive under 18
You can say “You can’t be eligible for a driving license, if you are below 18”
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