Definition: A noun is a naming word which describes the name of a living being, a non-living thing, a group of things, a place, any material, or any abstract qualities.
Types of Nouns
Nouns are mainly divided into the following five(5) categories:
- Common Noun
- Proper Noun
- Collective Noun
- Material Noun
- Abstract Noun
1. Common Noun
When some particular classes of living beings or non-living things are described by the Nouns, they are called ‘Common Nouns’.
Let’s see the sentence given below:
➤ Man is mortal.
In the above sentence, the word ‘Man’ suggests the class – man. So, here ‘Man’ is a ‘Common Noun’.
Similarly more examples are given below:
➤ Trees give us oxygen.
➤ A bird has a beak.
In the above sentences ‘Trees’, and ‘Bird’ are ‘Common Nouns’ because they suggest their classes.
1. Common noun is used both in singular and plural numbers.
2. An article is always needed before a common noun.
Exercise: Choose the correct common nouns of the following sentences and write down in your exercise book, and then check your answer
|John is a short boy.|
|Mr. W. H. is a pilot.|
|April is the fourth month.|
|The man gave me a pen.|
|I like to eat fish.|
|Everyone loves sflowers.|
2. Proper Noun
When some special or particular name of a person, place, animal, river, book, mountain, etc. are described by the nouns, they are called ‘Proper Nouns’.
Let’s see a example of Proper Noun:
➤ January comes after December.
In the above sentence, the words ‘January’ and ‘December’ are the name of two months. So, they are ‘Proper Noun’.
Similarly more examples are given below:
➤ Anushka is a beautiful girl.
➤ Delhi is the capital of India.
In the above sentences ‘Anushka’, ‘Delhi’ and ‘India’ are ‘Proper Noun’ because they are the name of a person and place.
A proper noun always begins with a capital letter.
Exercise: Put the proper nouns of the following sentences in the boxes.
|Bobby and Tommy are my cousins.|
|Jaipur is a city of Rajasthan.|
|Ganga is a very long river.|
|Einstein was a great scientist.|
|The Bible is a holy book.|
3. Collective Noun
When a group of persons or things of the same kind are described by the nouns, they are called ‘Collective Nouns’.
Now , carefully notice the following phrase:
➤ A company of boys.
In this phrase ‘company’ is a group of boys. So, here ‘company’ is a ‘Collective Noun’.
Here some other examples of Collective Noun are as follows:
➤ A bevy of girls.
➤ A herd of cows.
In these phrases, ‘bevy’ is a group of girls and ‘herd’ is a group of cows. So, they are called ‘Collective Nouns’.
A collective noun is usually used in singular numbers.
Exercise: Fill in the blanks with the help of collective nouns given in the above box.
|crew, troupe, regiment, flock, board, pack, hive, bunch, stack, collection|
- A _____ of soldiers.
- A _____ of sailors.
- A _____ of directors.
- A _____ of coins.
- A _____ of bees.
- A _____ of singers.
- A _____ of sheep.
- A _____ of cards.
- A _____ of flowers.
- A _____ of corn.
4. Material Noun
When the name of some materials or metals (from which things are made) are described by the nouns, they are called ‘Material Nouns’.
Now read the following sentence:
➤ A table is made of wood.
In this sentence, we can see that ‘wood’ is the material from which ‘table’ is made. So, here ‘wood’ is ‘Material Noun’.
Some more examples are given below:
➤ This knife is made of iron.
➤ A chain of gold is costly.
➤ The saree is made of silk.
In these sentences, ‘iron’, ‘gold’ and ‘silk’ are ‘Material Nouns’ because they are the materials from which knife, chain, and saree are made.
1. A material noun is never used in singular number.
2.’A’ or ‘an’ is never placed before a material noun.
Exercise: Fill the following blanks with the help of the material nouns given in the above box.
|Wheat, rice, diamond, paper, brick, milk, mud, copper, water, salt|
- The house is made of _______.
- He wants a ring of _______.
- Our main food is ________.
- Bread is made of ________.
- Wire is made of ________.
- _______ makes our food tasty.
- The flower is made of ________.
- We can’t live without ________.
- Ghee is made of ________.
- The pot is made of _________.
5. Abstract Noun
When some qualities, feelings, and actions (which are not visible but we can feel them) are described by the nouns, they are called ‘Abstract Nouns’.
Now, carefully notice the following sentence-
➤ She took pity on the boy.
In the above sentence, the word ‘pity’ is a ‘Abstract Noun’ because it’s a feeling which isn’t visible to us.
Similar more examples are given below:
➤ His joy knew no bounds.
➤ The teacher wanted to test the student’s knowledge.
In these sentences ‘joy’ and ‘knowledge’ are Abstract Nouns.
1. An abstract noun has no visible figure, we can only feel it.
2. It is never used in plural form.
Exercise: Choose the correct abstract noun of the following sentences and write down in your exercise book, and then review your answer.
|Constant practice makes one perfect.|
|Don’t lose hope.|
|He has no kindness for the poor.|
|The girl wishes to take part in the competition.|
|I got a scholarship in class – 10.|
The above discussed Nouns are divided into two subdivisions- (a) Countable Nouns and (b) Uncountable Nouns.
(a) Countable Nouns
The nouns that can be counted are called Countable Nouns.
➤ Birds have colorful feathers.
➤ Trees give us many things.
In the above two sentences, ‘Birds’, ‘feathers’, Trees’ and ‘things’ are Countable Nouns because they can be counted.
(i) A Countable Noun is used in both singular and plural numbers.
(ii) Countable Nouns always need ‘a’, ‘an’ or ‘the’ before them in singular form.
➤ A boy is playing.
➤ I have an umbrella.
➤ The girl looks very pretty.
(iii) Usually plural form is made by adding ‘s’ or ‘es’ to a Countable Noun. But there are some countable nouns that have irregular plural forms.
See the examples given below:
Plural forms of Count Nouns by adding ‘s’ or ‘es’:
Some Irregular Plural forms of Count Nouns:
(iv) Common Nouns and Collective Nouns are Countable Nouns.
(b) Uncountable Nouns
The nouns that can not be counted are called Uncountable Nouns.
➤ Truth has no alternative.
➤ Honesty is the best policy.
In these sentences, ‘Truth’ and ‘Honesty’ are Uncountable Nouns because they can’t be counted.